Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 2, 2019

Review: Colour Perception and its Relationship to Language and Thought

Mauro Ramos de Jesus Pereira

Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences. 2019, Vol. 12 Issue 2, 1-6


The present paper consists of a short review investigating the relationship between language and thought. As individuals, we interact with nature and attempt to conceptualise it in terms of the language available to us. In addition, differences in lexicon and grammar
may in fact result in corresponding differences in the cognition and thinking patterns. A considerable amount of research and scholarship has systematically demonstrated that there are quite subtle differences between languages and colour cognition.

Keywords: language, thought, colour perception, grammar and lexicon

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The Importance of Empathy and Theory of Mind when Working as a Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapist

Jonathan Norman

Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences. 2019, Vol. 12 Issue 2, 7-15


This paper critically evaluates how empathy and theory of the mind may be relevant to Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy. Empathy and theory of the mind has been the subject of much debate within psychotherapy domain. There is important to critically evaluate mechanisms such as theory of the mind and empathy. This is because we can gain useful insights into understanding how both are different, but nonetheless, cooperative mechanisms for sensibility in Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy. The definition of empathy is surrounded by much complexity in the literature. This essay does not attempt to focus on absolutely every single aspect of this specific issue. Instead it will concentrate on the dynamic relationship between empathy and theory of the mind, and how these processes can affect the psychotherapeutic outcome in Cognitive Behavioural interventions.

Keywords: Theory of the Mind, CBT, Psychotherapy, Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome


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The Intricacies Surrounding Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Dreams, its Formation and Function

Roger Nickerson

Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences. 2019, Vol. 12 Issue 2, 16-43


This paper aims to primarily shed some light concerning the nature of dreams by means of examining what research, and theorising has been done so far in this topic. A systematic review of literature was conducted using keywords as the main searching method. The rationale for choice of systematic as opposed to a narrative review is the fact that the former provide comprehensive means through which one can use research methods that are explicit, allowing ones assumptions to always be open to scrutiny by external parties. For the main review 8 articles were selected, covering a wide range of topics including the nature and function of dreams (Hartmann, 1998; Greenberg et al, 1992; Kantrowitz, 2001; Johnson, 2001), dream and primary/secondary processes (Solms, 2000; Robins, 2004), dreams and REM sleep (Poe et al, 2000), dreaming and creativity (Fisher & Greenberg, 1996). These studies strongly corroborated Freud’s assumptions for the link between conscious and unconscious processes and important role played by dreams in  variety of domains including emotional and intellectual problem solving, (Greenberg et al, 1992) selfknowledge and awareness and creativity (Fisher & Greenberg, 1996), adaptation (Kantrowitz, 2001), mind integration (Kantrowitz, 2001), learning and stress neutralization (Fisher & Greenberg, 1996). When it comes to dream function and formation, it should be evident that they also reflect mental activity as a whole, and have many other functions than simply discharging of psychic energy as stated by Sigmund Freud. Among these functions one can identify emotional and intellectual problem solving, self-knowledge and awareness, creativity, adaptation, mind integration, learning and stress neutralization.

Keywords: dreams, psychoanalysis, Freud, awareness, creativity

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The Causes and Impact of Stress in the Workplace

Caroline Wood

Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences. 2019, Vol. 12 Issue 2, 44-53


The present paper critically examines the nature of stress in the workplace. Firstly it provides a general overview of the nature of stress within organisational settings. Secondly, it explores key definitions of stress and work related stress, as well as how it has been
conceptualised and operationalised within the academic arena. Thirdly, this paper investigates key causes and effects of stress in the work place. Finally, this essay emphasises the importance of implementation of work-related health promotion programmes. In this respect, this paper prescribes physical activity as an important strategy for combating work-related stress. It should be evident that stress in the workplace has been widely acknowledged by government key stakeholders and policy makers. However, this paper takes the position that different individuals within the same working environment will still experience stress differently due to their personalities, coping strategies and support offered to them. Furthermore, stress cannot be completely eradicated in some
types of jobs such as nursing and law enforcement. Thus, individuals must also take responsibility for engaging in activities which would promote their psychophysiological wellbeing.

Keywords: Organisational Behaviour, Work-related stress, Job satisfaction

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The Effects of Parenting Styles on Behavioural Problems in Primary School Children: A Cross Cultural Review

Carla Sousa

Journal of Social & Psychological Sciences. 2019, Vol. 12 Issue 2, 54-64


This review explores the effects of parenting styles on primary school children behaviour, specifically levels of behavioural problems. Specifically, children from parents showing contributing factor such as “involvement”, “monitoring” and “other positive dimensions”
tended to have low levels of behaviour problems. From the literature review it emerged that this impact may vary across different societies.

Keywords: parenting styles, behavioural problems, cultural context

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